Prospective Follow-up of Adolescents with and at Risk for Depression: Protocol and Methods of the Identifying Depression Early in Adolescence Risk Stratified Cohort (IDEA-RiSCo) Longitudinal Assessments

Jader Piccin, Anna Viduani, Claudia Buchweitz, Rivka Pereira, Aline Zimerman, Guilherme Rodriguez Amando, Victor Cosenza, Leonardo Ferreira, N McMahon, Ramásio Melo, Danyella Richter da Natividade, Frederico Dal Soglio Reckziegel, Fernanda Rohrsetzer, Laila Souza, André Comiran Tonon, Marina Tuerlinckx Costa-Valle, Zuzanna Zajkowska, Ricardo Matsumura Araújo, Tobias U. Hauser, Alastair van HeerdenMaria Paz Loayza Hidalgo, Brandon A Kohrt, Valeria Mondelli, Johnna Swartz, Helen Fisher, Christian Kieling*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Objective: To present the protocol and methods for the prospective longitudinal assessments — including clinical and digital phenotyping approaches — of the Identifying Depression Early in Adolescence Risk Stratified Cohort (IDEA-RiSCo) study, which comprises Brazilian adolescents stratified at baseline by risk of developing depression or presence of depression.

Method: Of 7,720 screened adolescents aged 14-16, we recruited 150 participants (75 boys, 75 girls) based on a composite risk score: 50 with low risk for developing depression (LR), 50 with high risk for developing depression (HR), and 50 with an active untreated major depressive episode (MDD). Three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, involving clinical measures (parent and adolescent-reported questionnaires and psychiatrist assessments), active and passive data sensing via smartphones, and neurobiological measures (neuroimaging and biological material samples). Retention rates were 96% (Wave 1), 94% (Wave 2), and 88% (Wave 3), with no significant differences by sex or group (p > 0.05). Participants highlighted their familiarity with the research team and assessment process as a motivator for sustained engagement.

Discussion: This protocol relied on novel aspects, such as the use of a WhatsApp bot, which is particularly pertinent for low-to-middle-income countries, and the collection of information from diverse sources in a longitudinal design, encompassing clinical data, self-reports, parental reports, GPS data, and ecological momentary assessments. The study engaged adolescents over an extensive period and demonstrated the feasibility of conducting a prospective follow-up study with a risk-enriched cohort of adolescents in a middle-income country, integrating mobile technology with traditional methodologies to enhance longitudinal data collection.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (JAACAP) Open
Early online date13 Dec 2023
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Dec 2023

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