Purpose: To investigate macular curvature, including the evaluation of potential associations and the dome-shaped macular configuration, given the increasing myopia prevalence and expected associated macular malformations. Methods: The study included a total of 65,440 subjects with a mean age (± SD) of 57.3 ± 8.11 years with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) data from a unique contemporary resource for the study of health and disease that recruited more than half a million people in the United Kingdom (UK Biobank). A deep learning model was used to segment the retinal pigment epithelium. The macular curvature of the OCT scans was calculated by polynomial fit and evaluated. Further, associations with demographic, functional, ocular, and infancy factors were examined. Results: The overall macular curvature values followed a Gaussian distribution with high inter-eye agreement. Although all of the investigated parameters, except maternal smoking, were associated with the curvature in a multilinear analysis, ethnicity and refractive error consistently revealed the most significant effect. The prevalence of a macular dome-shaped configuration was 4.8% overall, most commonly in Chinese subjects as well as hypermetropic eyes. An increasing frequency up to 22.0% was found toward high refractive error. Subretinal fluid was rarely found in these eyes. Conclusions: Macular curvature revealed associations with demographic, functional, ocular, and infancy factors, as well as increasing prevalence of a dome-shaped macular configuration in high refractive error including high myopia and hypermetropia. These findings imply different pathophysiologic processes that lead to macular development and might open new fields to future myopia and macula research.