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Quantum anomalies in string-inspired running vacuum universe: Inflation and axion dark matter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Spyros Basilakos, Nick E. Mavromatos, Joan Solà Peracaula

Original languageEnglish
Article number135342
JournalPhysics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2020

King's Authors


In this letter, we elaborate further on a Cosmological “Running-Vacuum” type model for the Universe, suggested previously by the authors [1,2], within the context of a string-inspired effective theory in the presence of a Kalb-Ramond (KR) gravitational axion field which descends from the antisymmetric tensor of the massless gravitational string multiplet. In the presence of this field, which has anomalous CP violating interactions with the gravitons, primordial gravitational waves induce gravitational anomalies, which in turn are responsible for the appearance of H2 and H4 contributions to the vacuum energy density, these terms being characteristic of generic “running-vacuum-model (RVM) type”, where H is the Hubble parameter. In this work we prove in detail the appearance of the H4 terms due to gravitational-anomaly-induced condensates in the energy density of the primordial Universe, which can self-consistently induce inflation, and subsequent exit from it, according to the generic features of RVM. We also argue in favour of the robustness of our results, which were derived within an effective low-energy field theory approach, against Ultra Violet completion of the theory. During the radiation and matter-dominated eras, gravitational anomalies cancel, as required for the consistency of the quantum matter/radiation field theory. However, chiral and QCD-axion-type anomalies survive and have important consequences for both cosmic magnetogenesis and axionic dark matter in the Universe. Finally, the stringy RVM scenario presented here predicts quintessence-like dynamical dark energy for the current Universe, which is compatible with the existing fitting analyses of such model against observations.

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