Radiogenomic biomarkers for immunotherapy in glioblastoma: A systematic review of magnetic resonance imaging studies

Prajwal Ghimire, Ben Kinnersley, Golestan Karami, Prabhu Arumugam, Richard Houlston, Keyoumars Ashkan, Marc Modat, Thomas C Booth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy is an effective "precision medicine" treatment for several cancers. Imaging signatures of the underlying genome (radiogenomics) in glioblastoma patients may serve as preoperative biomarkers of the tumor-host immune apparatus. Validated biomarkers would have the potential to stratify patients during immunotherapy clinical trials, and if trials are beneficial, facilitate personalized neo-adjuvant treatment. The increased use of whole genome sequencing data, and the advances in bioinformatics and machine learning make such developments plausible. We performed a systematic review to determine the extent of development and validation of immune-related radiogenomic biomarkers for glioblastoma.

METHODS: A systematic review was performed following PRISMA guidelines using the PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases. Qualitative analysis was performed by incorporating the QUADAS 2 tool and CLAIM checklist. PROSPERO registered: CRD42022340968. Extracted data were insufficiently homogenous to perform a meta-analysis.

RESULTS: Nine studies, all retrospective, were included. Biomarkers extracted from magnetic resonance imaging volumes of interest included apparent diffusion coefficient values, relative cerebral blood volume values, and image-derived features. These biomarkers correlated with genomic markers from tumor cells or immune cells or with patient survival. The majority of studies had a high risk of bias and applicability concerns regarding the index test performed.

CONCLUSIONS: Radiogenomic immune biomarkers have the potential to provide early treatment options to patients with glioblastoma. Targeted immunotherapy, stratified by these biomarkers, has the potential to allow individualized neo-adjuvant precision treatment options in clinical trials. However, there are no prospective studies validating these biomarkers, and interpretation is limited due to study bias with little evidence of generalizability.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbervdae055
Pages (from-to)vdae055
JournalNeuro-Oncology Advances
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 5 Apr 2024


Dive into the research topics of 'Radiogenomic biomarkers for immunotherapy in glioblastoma: A systematic review of magnetic resonance imaging studies'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this