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Raised preoperative international normalised ratio (INR) identifies patients at high risk of perioperative death after simultaneous renal and cardiac surgery for tumours involving the peri-diaphragmatic inferior vena cava and right atrium

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)424-429
JournalBJU International
Issue number3
Early online date19 Jul 2016
Accepted/In press15 Jul 2016
E-pub ahead of print19 Jul 2016
Published29 Aug 2016


King's Authors


Abstract Objective To identify preoperative factors that predict 30‐day mortality in patients undergoing simultaneous cardiac and renal surgery for urological tumours involving the peri‐diaphragmatic vena cava and right atrium‐ The ability to predict mortality and therefore avoid surgery in those patients likely to die would be valuable. Patients and Methods We retrospectively reviewed perioperative outcomes in patients managed between December 2007 and January 2016 by a single team. The relationships of outcome measurements were analysed using Fisher's exact and Mann–Whitney U‐tests. Results Of the 46 patients identified, 41 (89%) underwent surgery (20 males and 21 females). The median (range) age was 65 (17–95) years. Histology confirmed 37 renal cell cancers, one adrenal cancer, two primitive neuroectodermal tumours, and one leiomyosarcoma. The overall 30‐day mortality rate was 7% (three of 41 patients). The international normalised ratio (INR), age, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) correlated significantly with 30‐day mortality. The mortality rate was high in patients with an INR ≥1.5 and <1.5 (with three of the five patients dying) compared to those with an INR <1.5 (0/36 patients died; 30 day mortality 0%). The INR correlated with serious complications (≥Clavien‐Dindo Grade III), which occurred in all five patients with an INR ≥1.5 and <1.5 vs 12/36 (33%) with an INR <1.5 (P < 0.002). The median (range) eGFR in those that died was 36 (26–37) mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to 52 (24–154) mL/min/1.73 m2 in those that survived (P = 0.018). Conclusions In patients undergoing combined cardiac and renal tumour surgery raised preoperative INR is associated with a high risk of 30‐day mortality when the patient is elderly (>70 years) and of significant post‐operative complications in younger patients (<70 years). Surgery in patients with a normal INR is challenging but much safer.

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