Rapid review on understanding morale in the NHS workforce

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This paper reviews the literature on employee morale amongst NHS employees, produced between 2020-21, with a view to addressing the following questions:
How should morale be defined? How is the term conceptualised and used in different ways when discussing healthcare employees?
What is best practice for understanding morale? To what extent is morale something that could/should be understood/measured quantitatively (e.g. via a survey) or in other ways?
What is the impact of morale on key NHS outcomes including retention, motivation and quality of care?
What are the lessons for the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) and NHS England (NHS E) in developing a Quarterly NHS Pulse Survey?
What interventions/policies are most effective in improving employee morale in the NHS?
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationLondon
PublisherNIHR Policy Research Unit in Health and Social Care Workforce, The Policy Institute, King's College London
Number of pages53
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2021


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