Reasons for inadequate or incomplete imaging techniques

Cosmin Caraiani, Yi Dong, Anthony G. Rudd, Christoph F. Dietrich*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Even if imaging has developed considerably during the last decades there still exist several factors which limit its capacities. These factors can either limit the usage of a technique or degrade images making them difficult to interpret. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has, as an absolute contraindication, the presence of metallic devices marked as “MRI unsafe” and metallic foreign bodies close to the eye or vital structures. Claustrophobia and artefacts reduce the application and performance of MRI in a significant proportion of patients. The major disadvantages of computed tomography (CT) are the exposure to ionizing radiation inducing malignancies especially in pediatric patients and the risk of contrast induced allergies and nephropathy. Ultrasound is a safe, easily available and low-cost imaging technique without significant side effects for the patient. Obesity or bloating can severely limit ultrasound capacities. This paper written by radiologists and clinicians, highlights the main reasons leading to inadequate imaging and points out solutions to avoid inaccurate diagnosis due to incomplete imaging or presence of artifacts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-507
Number of pages10
JournalMedical Ultrasonography
Issue number4
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2 Oct 2018


  • Artefacts
  • Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Contraindications
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Ultrasound (US)


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