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Reference dietary requirements of vitamins in different stages of life

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Mina Yamazaki Price, Victor R. Preedy

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMolecular Nutrition
Subtitle of host publicationVitamins
Number of pages30
ISBN (Electronic)9780128119075
ISBN (Print)9780128119365
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

King's Authors


Vitamins are essential to life for their specific roles in maintaining normal physiological functions including growth and development. Deficiency and/or compromised vitamin status can result in a diversity of syndromes. Currently 13 vitamins are identified and commonly categorized as «fat-soluble» and «water-soluble» vitamins. Vitamins are not endogenously synthesized in humans to meet normal physiological needs. Therefore reference requirements are developed for individuals and populations to minimize risk of nutrient deficiency or excess in order to achieve optimal health and prevent disease. There are various factors and challenges for individuals and populations when meeting reference dietary requirements for vitamins. These include food availability, food choice, ethnicity, religion, age, season, climate, disposable income, food policies, public health strategies, and many other factors. These factors vary between different countries, populations, and communities. In this review we cover reference dietary requirements for the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and the water-soluble vitamins thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), niacin (vitamin B3), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), folate (vitamin B9), vitamin C, pantothenic acid, and biotin.

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