Refining rodent models of spinal cord injury

Elliot Lilley*, Melissa R. Andrews, Elizabeth J. Bradbury, Heather Elliott, Penny Hawkins, Ronaldo M. Ichiyama, Jo Keeley, Adina T. Michael-Titus, Lawrence D.F. Moon, Stefano Pluchino, John Riddell, Kathy Ryder, Ping K. Yip

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


This report was produced by an Expert Working Group (EWG) consisting of UK-based researchers, veterinarians and regulators of animal experiments with specialist knowledge of the use of animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI). It aims to facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement), with an emphasis on refinement. Specific animal welfare issues were identified and discussed, and practical measures proposed, with the aim of reducing animal use and suffering, reducing experimental variability, and increasing translatability within this critically important research field.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113273
JournalExperimental Neurology
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • Animal model
  • Animal welfare
  • Paralysis
  • Refinement
  • Regeneration
  • Spinal contusion
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal transection
  • Three Rs
  • Tissue repair
  • Translational research


Dive into the research topics of 'Refining rodent models of spinal cord injury'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this