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Refining rodent models of spinal cord injury

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Elliot Lilley, Melissa R. Andrews, Elizabeth J. Bradbury, Heather Elliott, Penny Hawkins, Ronaldo M. Ichiyama, Jo Keeley, Adina T. Michael-Titus, Lawrence D.F. Moon, Stefano Pluchino, John Riddell, Kathy Ryder, Ping K. Yip

Original languageEnglish
Article number113273
JournalExperimental Neurology
PublishedJun 2020

King's Authors


This report was produced by an Expert Working Group (EWG) consisting of UK-based researchers, veterinarians and regulators of animal experiments with specialist knowledge of the use of animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI). It aims to facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement), with an emphasis on refinement. Specific animal welfare issues were identified and discussed, and practical measures proposed, with the aim of reducing animal use and suffering, reducing experimental variability, and increasing translatability within this critically important research field.

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