Regulation of RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation and Elongation by Transcription Factor TFII-I

Niko Linzer, Alexis Trumbull, Rukiye Nar, Matthew D. Gibbons, David T. Yu, John Strouboulis, Jörg Bungert*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is regulated by different processes, including alterations in chromatin structure, interactions between distal regulatory elements and promoters, formation of transcription domains enriched for Pol II and co-regulators, and mechanisms involved in the initiation, elongation, and termination steps of transcription. Transcription factor TFII-I, originally identified as an initiator (INR)-binding protein, contains multiple protein–protein interaction domains and plays diverse roles in the regulation of transcription. Genome-wide analysis revealed that TFII-I associates with expressed as well as repressed genes. Consistently, TFII-I interacts with co-regulators that either positively or negatively regulate the transcription. Furthermore, TFII-I has been shown to regulate transcription pausing by interacting with proteins that promote or inhibit the elongation step of transcription. Changes in TFII-I expression in humans are associated with neurological and immunological diseases as well as cancer. Furthermore, TFII-I is essential for the development of mice and represents a barrier for the induction of pluripotency. Here, we review the known functions of TFII-I related to the regulation of Pol II transcription at the stages of initiation and elongation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number681550
JournalFrontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2021


  • GTF2I
  • RNA polymerase II
  • TFII-I
  • transcription elongation
  • transcription regulation


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