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Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012

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Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012. / Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Chatzikosta, Isaia; Pastiadis, Konstantinos; Zanis, Prodromos; Kawohl, Wolfram; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.; Navickas, Alvydas; Höschl, Cyril; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Sorel, Eliot; Rancans, Elmars; Palova, Eva; Juckel, Georg; Isacsson, Goran; Jagodic, Helena Korosec; Botezat-Antonescu, Ileana; Rybakowski, Janusz; Azorin, Jean Michel; Cookson, John; Waddington, John; Pregelj, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Hranov, Luchezar G.; Stevovic, Lidija Injac; Pezawas, Lucas; Adida, Marc; Figuera, Maria Luisa; Jakovljević, Miro; Vichi, Monica; Perugi, Giulio; Andreassen, Ole A.; Vukovic, Olivera; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Varnik, Peeter; Dome, Peter; Winkler, Petr; Salokangas, Raimo K. R.; From, Tiina; Danileviciute, Vita; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Forsman, Jonas; Grady, Anne; Hyphantis, Thomas; Dieset, Ingrid; Soendergaard, Susan; Pompili, Maurizio; Bech, Per.

In: Annals of General Psychiatry, Vol. 15, No. 1, 09.08.2016, p. 1-6.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Fountoulakis, KN, Chatzikosta, I, Pastiadis, K, Zanis, P, Kawohl, W, Kerkhof, AJFM, Navickas, A, Höschl, C, Lecic-Tosevski, D, Sorel, E, Rancans, E, Palova, E, Juckel, G, Isacsson, G, Jagodic, HK, Botezat-Antonescu, I, Rybakowski, J, Azorin, JM, Cookson, J, Waddington, J, Pregelj, P, Demyttenaere, K, Hranov, LG, Stevovic, LI, Pezawas, L, Adida, M, Figuera, ML, Jakovljević, M, Vichi, M, Perugi, G, Andreassen, OA, Vukovic, O, Mavrogiorgou, P, Varnik, P, Dome, P, Winkler, P, Salokangas, RKR, From, T, Danileviciute, V, Gonda, X, Rihmer, Z, Forsman, J, Grady, A, Hyphantis, T, Dieset, I, Soendergaard, S, Pompili, M & Bech, P 2016, 'Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012', Annals of General Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-016-0106-2

APA

Fountoulakis, K. N., Chatzikosta, I., Pastiadis, K., Zanis, P., Kawohl, W., Kerkhof, A. J. F. M., Navickas, A., Höschl, C., Lecic-Tosevski, D., Sorel, E., Rancans, E., Palova, E., Juckel, G., Isacsson, G., Jagodic, H. K., Botezat-Antonescu, I., Rybakowski, J., Azorin, J. M., Cookson, J., ... Bech, P. (2016). Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012. Annals of General Psychiatry, 15(1), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-016-0106-2

Vancouver

Fountoulakis KN, Chatzikosta I, Pastiadis K, Zanis P, Kawohl W, Kerkhof AJFM et al. Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012. Annals of General Psychiatry. 2016 Aug 9;15(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-016-0106-2

Author

Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N. ; Chatzikosta, Isaia ; Pastiadis, Konstantinos ; Zanis, Prodromos ; Kawohl, Wolfram ; Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M. ; Navickas, Alvydas ; Höschl, Cyril ; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica ; Sorel, Eliot ; Rancans, Elmars ; Palova, Eva ; Juckel, Georg ; Isacsson, Goran ; Jagodic, Helena Korosec ; Botezat-Antonescu, Ileana ; Rybakowski, Janusz ; Azorin, Jean Michel ; Cookson, John ; Waddington, John ; Pregelj, Peter ; Demyttenaere, Koen ; Hranov, Luchezar G. ; Stevovic, Lidija Injac ; Pezawas, Lucas ; Adida, Marc ; Figuera, Maria Luisa ; Jakovljević, Miro ; Vichi, Monica ; Perugi, Giulio ; Andreassen, Ole A. ; Vukovic, Olivera ; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi ; Varnik, Peeter ; Dome, Peter ; Winkler, Petr ; Salokangas, Raimo K. R. ; From, Tiina ; Danileviciute, Vita ; Gonda, Xenia ; Rihmer, Zoltan ; Forsman, Jonas ; Grady, Anne ; Hyphantis, Thomas ; Dieset, Ingrid ; Soendergaard, Susan ; Pompili, Maurizio ; Bech, Per. / Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012. In: Annals of General Psychiatry. 2016 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 1-6.

Bibtex Download

@article{1e28f51503eb492296c505a2a343911b,
title = "Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012",
abstract = "BackgroundIt is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate.MethodsData from 29 European countries covering the years 2000–2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression.ResultsThe derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high inflation and low GDP per capita, while female suicides correlated negatively with inflation. Both male and female suicides correlated with low temperature.DiscussionThe current study reports that the climatic effect (cold climate) is stronger than the economic one, but both are present. It seems that in Europe suicidality follows the climate/temperature cline which interestingly is not from south to north but from south to north-east. This raises concerns that climate change could lead to an increase in suicide rates. The current study is essentially the first successful attempt to explain the differences across countries in Europe; however, it is an observational analysis based on aggregate data and thus there is a lack of control for confounders.",
author = "Fountoulakis, {Konstantinos N.} and Isaia Chatzikosta and Konstantinos Pastiadis and Prodromos Zanis and Wolfram Kawohl and Kerkhof, {Ad J. F. M.} and Alvydas Navickas and Cyril H{\"o}schl and Dusica Lecic-Tosevski and Eliot Sorel and Elmars Rancans and Eva Palova and Georg Juckel and Goran Isacsson and Jagodic, {Helena Korosec} and Ileana Botezat-Antonescu and Janusz Rybakowski and Azorin, {Jean Michel} and John Cookson and John Waddington and Peter Pregelj and Koen Demyttenaere and Hranov, {Luchezar G.} and Stevovic, {Lidija Injac} and Lucas Pezawas and Marc Adida and Figuera, {Maria Luisa} and Miro Jakovljevi{\'c} and Monica Vichi and Giulio Perugi and Andreassen, {Ole A.} and Olivera Vukovic and Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou and Peeter Varnik and Peter Dome and Petr Winkler and Salokangas, {Raimo K. R.} and Tiina From and Vita Danileviciute and Xenia Gonda and Zoltan Rihmer and Jonas Forsman and Anne Grady and Thomas Hyphantis and Ingrid Dieset and Susan Soendergaard and Maurizio Pompili and Per Bech",
year = "2016",
month = aug,
day = "9",
doi = "10.1186/s12991-016-0106-2",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "1--6",
journal = "Annals of General Psychiatry",
issn = "1744-859X",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000–2012

AU - Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.

AU - Chatzikosta, Isaia

AU - Pastiadis, Konstantinos

AU - Zanis, Prodromos

AU - Kawohl, Wolfram

AU - Kerkhof, Ad J. F. M.

AU - Navickas, Alvydas

AU - Höschl, Cyril

AU - Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica

AU - Sorel, Eliot

AU - Rancans, Elmars

AU - Palova, Eva

AU - Juckel, Georg

AU - Isacsson, Goran

AU - Jagodic, Helena Korosec

AU - Botezat-Antonescu, Ileana

AU - Rybakowski, Janusz

AU - Azorin, Jean Michel

AU - Cookson, John

AU - Waddington, John

AU - Pregelj, Peter

AU - Demyttenaere, Koen

AU - Hranov, Luchezar G.

AU - Stevovic, Lidija Injac

AU - Pezawas, Lucas

AU - Adida, Marc

AU - Figuera, Maria Luisa

AU - Jakovljević, Miro

AU - Vichi, Monica

AU - Perugi, Giulio

AU - Andreassen, Ole A.

AU - Vukovic, Olivera

AU - Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi

AU - Varnik, Peeter

AU - Dome, Peter

AU - Winkler, Petr

AU - Salokangas, Raimo K. R.

AU - From, Tiina

AU - Danileviciute, Vita

AU - Gonda, Xenia

AU - Rihmer, Zoltan

AU - Forsman, Jonas

AU - Grady, Anne

AU - Hyphantis, Thomas

AU - Dieset, Ingrid

AU - Soendergaard, Susan

AU - Pompili, Maurizio

AU - Bech, Per

PY - 2016/8/9

Y1 - 2016/8/9

N2 - BackgroundIt is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate.MethodsData from 29 European countries covering the years 2000–2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression.ResultsThe derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high inflation and low GDP per capita, while female suicides correlated negatively with inflation. Both male and female suicides correlated with low temperature.DiscussionThe current study reports that the climatic effect (cold climate) is stronger than the economic one, but both are present. It seems that in Europe suicidality follows the climate/temperature cline which interestingly is not from south to north but from south to north-east. This raises concerns that climate change could lead to an increase in suicide rates. The current study is essentially the first successful attempt to explain the differences across countries in Europe; however, it is an observational analysis based on aggregate data and thus there is a lack of control for confounders.

AB - BackgroundIt is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate.MethodsData from 29 European countries covering the years 2000–2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression.ResultsThe derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high inflation and low GDP per capita, while female suicides correlated negatively with inflation. Both male and female suicides correlated with low temperature.DiscussionThe current study reports that the climatic effect (cold climate) is stronger than the economic one, but both are present. It seems that in Europe suicidality follows the climate/temperature cline which interestingly is not from south to north but from south to north-east. This raises concerns that climate change could lead to an increase in suicide rates. The current study is essentially the first successful attempt to explain the differences across countries in Europe; however, it is an observational analysis based on aggregate data and thus there is a lack of control for confounders.

U2 - 10.1186/s12991-016-0106-2

DO - 10.1186/s12991-016-0106-2

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 1

EP - 6

JO - Annals of General Psychiatry

JF - Annals of General Psychiatry

SN - 1744-859X

IS - 1

ER -

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