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Relaxation times for Bose-Einstein condensation by self-interaction and gravity

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Jiajun Chen, Xiaolong Du, Erik W. Lentz, David J.E. Marsh

Original languageEnglish
Article number023009
JournalPhysical Review D
Issue number2
Published15 Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information: We thank D. G. Levkov for helpful discussions. X. D. acknowledges support from NASA ATP Grant No. 17-ATP17-0120. X. D. thanks A. E. Mirasola for beneficial discussions. E. L. acknowledges funding and support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830. Publisher Copyright: © 2022 American Physical Society.

King's Authors


In this paper, we study the Bose-Einstein condensation of a scalar field with an attractive self-interaction, with or without gravitational interactions. We confirm through full dynamical simulation that the condensation timescale due to self-interaction is inversely proportional to the square of the number density n and the self-coupling constant g:τ n-2g-2. We also investigate the condensation timescale when self-interaction and gravity are both important by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson equations, and find that the condensation time scales according to an additive model for the cross section. We discuss the relevance of our results to theoretical models of boson star formation by condensation.

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