Using the background-field method we demonstrate the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) structure of counterterms in a broad class of gauge theories. Put simply, we show that gauge invariance is preserved by renormalization in local gauge field theories whenever they admit a sensible background-field formulation and anomaly-free path integral measure. This class encompasses Yang-Mills theories (with possibly Abelian subgroups) and relativistic gravity, including both renormalizable and non-renormalizable (effective) theories. Our results also hold for non-relativistic models such as Yang-Mills theories with anisotropic scaling or Hořava gravity. They strengthen and generalize the existing results in the literature concerning the renormalization of gauge systems. Locality of the BRST construction is emphasized throughout the derivation. We illustrate our general approach with several explicit examples.
- BRST Quantization, Effective Field Theories, Gauge Symmetry, Models of Quantum Gravity, High Energy Physics - Theory, General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology