Quantitative markers extracted from resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG) reveal subtle neurophysiological dynamics which may provide useful information to support the diagnosis of seizure disorders. We performed a systematic review to summarize evidence on markers extracted from interictal, visually normal resting-state EEG in adults with idiopathic epilepsy or psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Studies were selected from 5 databases and evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. 26 studies were identified, 19 focusing on people with epilepsy, 6 on people with PNES, and one comparing epilepsy and PNES directly. Results suggest that oscillations along the theta frequency (4–8 Hz) may have a relevant role in idiopathic epilepsy, whereas in PNES there was no evident trend. However, studies were subject to a number of methodological limitations potentially introducing bias. There was often a lack of appropriate reporting and high heterogeneity. Results were not appropriate for quantitative synthesis. We identify and discuss the challenges that must be addressed for valid resting-state EEG markers of epilepsy and PNES to be developed.
- Systematic review
- Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures
- Resting-state EEG
- Diagnostic marker
- Theta rhythm