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Revisiting the “Responsibility to Protect” and the Use of Force

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-264
JournalAsian Journal of Peacebuilding
Issue number2
Early online date30 Nov 2019
Accepted/In press14 Oct 2019
E-pub ahead of print30 Nov 2019


King's Authors


Efforts to “operationalize” the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) continue to encounter resistance from key member states. Where it matters most, among vulnerable civilian populations caught up in war, the R2P appears to be making scant difference.Rising geopolitical tensions have added to a growing sense of pessimism among R2P advocates. Unsurprisingly, the most contentions aspect of the R2P concept continues to revolve around the question of the use of force for humanitarian purposes. It is a subject on which states, for an admixture of historical and political reasons, remain deeply divided. Nonetheless, as a politically significant norm, the R2P has come to command growing support from states, even though the degree to which the R2P norm has been truly internalized across international society varies greatly

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