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Risk and protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Miquel A. Fullana, Miquel Tortella-Feliu, Lorena Fernández De La Cruz, Jacobo Chamorro, Ana Pérez-Vigil, John P.A. Ioannidis, Aleix Solanes, Maria Guardiola, Carmen Almodóvar, Romina Miranda-Olivos, Valentina Ramella-Cravaro, Ana Vilar, Abraham Reichenberg, David Mataix-Cols, Eduard Vieta, Paolo Fusar-Poli, Mar Fatjó-Vilas, Joaquim Radua

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
JournalPsychological Medicine
Early online date6 Jun 2019
Accepted/In press9 May 2019
E-pub ahead of print6 Jun 2019


King's Authors


BackgroundA multitude of risk/protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders have been proposed. We conducted an umbrella review to summarize the evidence of the associations between risk/protective factors and each of the following disorders: specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and to assess the strength of this evidence whilst controlling for several biases.MethodsPublication databases were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining associations between potential risk/protective factors and each of the disorders investigated. The evidence of the association between each factor and disorder was graded into convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or non-significant according to a standardized classification based on: number of cases (>1000), random-effects p-values, 95% prediction intervals, confidence interval of the largest study, heterogeneity between studies, study effects, and excess of significance.ResultsNineteen systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included, corresponding to 216 individual studies covering 427 potential risk/protective factors. Only one factor association (early physical trauma as a risk factor for social anxiety disorder, OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.17-3.1) met all the criteria for convincing evidence. When excluding the requirement for more than 1000 cases, five factor associations met the other criteria for convincing evidence and 22 met the remaining criteria for highly suggestive evidence.ConclusionsAlthough the amount and quality of the evidence for most risk/protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited, a number of factors significantly increase the risk for these disorders, may have potential prognostic ability and inform prevention.

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