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Rivaroxaban versus warfarin to treat patients with thrombotic antiphospholipid syndrome, with or without systemic lupus erythematosus (RAPS): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 2/3, non-inferiority trial

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Hannah Cohen, Beverley J Hunt, Maria Efthymiou, Deepa R J Arachchillage, Ian J Mackie, Simon Clawson, Yvonne Sylvestre, Samuel J Machin, Maria L Bertolaccini, Maria Ruiz-Castellano, Nicola Muirhead, Caroline J Doré, Munther Khamashta, David A Isenberg

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e426-e436
JournalThe Lancet Haematology
Issue number9
Early online date26 Aug 2016
Accepted/In press26 Aug 2016
E-pub ahead of print26 Aug 2016
Published30 Sep 2016


King's Authors



Rivaroxaban is established for the treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism, but whether it is useful in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome is uncertain.


This randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 2/3, non-inferiority trial, done in two UK hospitals, included patients with antiphospholipid syndrome who were taking warfarin for previous venous thromboembolism, with a target international normalised ratio of 2·5. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to continue with warfarin or receive 20 mg oral rivaroxaban daily. Randomisation was done centrally, stratified by centre and patient type (with vs without systemic lupus erythematosus). The primary outcome was percentage change in endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) from randomisation to day 42, with non-inferiority set at less than 20% difference from warfarin in mean percentage change. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. Other thrombin generation parameters, thrombosis, and bleeding were also assessed. Treatment effect was measured as the ratio of rivaroxaban to warfarin for thrombin generation. This trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN68222801.


Of 116 patients randomised between June 5, 2013, and Nov 11, 2014, 54 who received rivaroxaban and 56 who received warfarin were assessed. At day 42, ETP was higher in the rivaroxaban than in the warfarin group (geometric mean 1086 nmol/L per min, 95% CI 957–1233 vs 548, 484–621, treatment effect 2·0, 95% CI 1·7–2·4, p<0·0001). Peak thrombin generation was lower in the rivaroxaban group (56 nmol/L, 95% CI 47–66 vs 86 nmol/L, 72–102, treatment effect 0·6, 95% CI 0·5–0·8, p=0·0006). No thrombosis or major bleeding were seen. Serious adverse events occurred in four patients in each group.


ETP for rivaroxaban did not reach the non-inferiority threshold, but as there was no increase in thrombotic risk compared with standard-intensity warfarin, this drug could be an effective and safe alternative in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and previous venous thromboembolism.

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