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Sample Shuttling Relaxometry of Contrast Agents: NMRD Profiles above 1T with a Single Device

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Yves Gossuin, Zeinab Serhan, Lydia Sandiford, Daniel Henrard, Thorsten Marquardsen, Rafael T. M. de Rosales, Dimitrios Sakellariou, Fabien Ferrage

Original languageEnglish
JournalAPPLIED MAGNETIC RESONANCE
Early online date30 Jan 2016
DOIs
E-pub ahead of print30 Jan 2016
Published2016

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Abstract

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles are essential tools to evaluate the efficiency and investigate the properties of magnetic compounds used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), namely gadolinium chelates and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. These curves represent the evolution of proton relaxation rates with the magnetic field. NMRD profiles are unparalleled to probe extensively the spectral density function involved in the relaxation of water in the presence of the paramagnetic ion or the magnetic nanoparticles. This makes such profiles an excellent test of the adequacy of a theoretical relaxation model and allow for a predictive approach to the development and optimization of contrast agents. From a practical point of view they also allow to evaluate the efficiency of a contrast agent in a certain range of magnetic fields. Nowadays, these curves are recorded with commercial fast field cycling devices, often limited to a maximum Larmor frequency of 40 MHz (0.94 T). In this article, relaxation data were acquired on a wide range of magnetic fields, from 3.5 × 10−4 to 14 T, for a gadolinium-based contrast agent and for PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticles. We show that the low-field NMRD curves can be completed with high-field data obtained on a shuttle apparatus device using the superconductive magnet of a high-field spectrometer. This allows a better characterization of the contrast agents at relevant magnetic fields for clinical and preclinical MRI, but also refines the experimental data that could be used for the validation of relaxation models.

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