Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is widely used for diagnostic imaging in the pediatric population. In addition to structural congenital heart disease (CHD), for which published guidelines are available, CMR is also performed for non-structural pediatric heart disease, for which guidelines are not available. This article provides guidelines for the performance and reporting of CMR in the pediatric population for non-structural (“non-congenital”) heart disease, including cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, Kawasaki disease and systemic vasculitides, cardiac tumors, pericardial disease, pulmonary hypertension, heart transplant, and aortopathies. Given important differences in disease pathophysiology and clinical manifestations as well as unique technical challenges related to body size, heart rate, and sedation needs, these guidelines focus on optimization of the CMR examination in infants and children compared to adults. Disease states are discussed, including the goals of CMR examination, disease-specific protocols, and limitations and pitfalls, as well as newer techniques that remain under development.
- Cardiovascular magnetic resonance
- Pediatric heart disease