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Serum immunoglobulin levels and the risk of bladder cancer in the AMORIS Cohort

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ioannis Peppas, Sam Sollie, Debra H Josephs, Niklas Hammar, Göran Walldius, Sophia N Karagiannis, Mieke Van Hemelrijck

Original languageEnglish
Article number101584
Pages (from-to)101584
JournalCancer Epidemiology
Early online date23 Aug 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

King's Authors


Background: The anti-tumour T-cell response in bladder cancer has been shown to correlate with response to treatment and prognosis. However, little is known about the role of humoral immunity in this highly immunogenic human cancer, which is characterised by a high mutation-associated neoantigen load and a strong response to immunotherapy. In the present study, we interrogated the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk Study (AMORIS) to explore the relationship between pre-diagnostic serum immunoglobulin levels and the risk of developing bladder cancer. Methods: Our analysis included all AMORIS participants aged 20 years or older, who had all three major serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG) recorded at the same baseline measurement (n = 29,876). All participants were free from bladder cancer at the time of measurement. Samples were obtained between 1985–1996, with follow-up information until 2011. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the association between bladder cancer risk and different levels of pre-diagnostic serum immunoglobulins. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 15.31 years, 163 (0.5%) individuals were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Multivariate Cox regression showed an inverse association between pre-diagnostic serum IgM levels ≥ 1.4 g/L and bladder cancer risk compared to serum IgM levels < 1.4 g/L [HR: 0.68 (95% CI 0.45–1.03)]. Corresponding associations could not be established for serum IgA or IgG. Conclusion: Our findings implicate serum IgM in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer and suggest that the concept of humoral immune surveillance against cancer warrants further mechanistic investigation.

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