Sex Differences in Survival from Neuroendocrine Neoplasia in England 2012–2018: A Retrospective, Population-Based Study

Benjamin E. White*, Beth Russell, Sebastiaan Remmers, Brian Rous, Kandiah Chandrakumaran, Kwok F. Wong, Mieke Van Hemelrijck, Rajaventhan Srirajaskanthan, John K. Ramage

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pre-clinical studies have suggested sex hormone signalling pathways may influence tumorigenesis in neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN). We conducted a retrospective, population-based study to compare overall survival (OS) between males and females with NEN. A total of 14,834 cases of NEN diagnosed between 2012 and 2018, recorded in England’s National Cancer Registry and Analysis Service (NCRAS), were analysed. The primary outcome was OS with 5 years maximum follow-up. Multivariable analysis, restricted mean survival time and mediation analysis were performed. Appendiceal, pulmonary and early-stage NEN were most commonly diagnosed in females; stomach, pancreatic, small intestinal, colonic, rectal and later-stage NEN were more often diagnosed in males. Females displayed increased survival irrespective of the stage, morphology or level of deprivation. On average, they survived 3.62 (95% CI 1.73–5.90) to 10.26 (6.6–14.45) months longer than males; this was statistically significant in NEN of the lung, pancreas, rectum and stomach (p < 0.001). The stage mediated improved survival in stomach, lung, and pancreatic NEN but not in rectal NEN. The reasons underlying these differences are not yet understood. Overall, females diagnosed with NEN tend to survive longer than males, and the stage at presentation only partially explains this. Future research, as well as prognostication and treatment, should consider sex as an important factor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1863
JournalCancers
Volume15
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • carcinoid
  • epidemiology
  • incidence
  • neuroendocrine neoplasia
  • neuroendocrine tumour
  • predictors of survival
  • survival

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