Simulation training in upper tract endourology: myth or reality? Critical analysis of the literature

Catherine E Lovegrove, Takashige Abe, Abdullatif Aydin, Domenico Veneziano, Kemal Sarica, M Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta, Kamran Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Surgeons training in the twenty-first century are subject to a myriad of pressures, as has always been the case within surgical training. These include reduced hours available for training and increased threat of litigation against their operating practice. The Halstedian approach of "see one, do one, teach one" has been replaced within surgical training and simulation has become established to enable urology trainees to develop technical and non-technical skills away from the operating room. With the primary focus as patient safety and increasing operating skill, "simulation training" encompasses several modalities. These include wet-lab cadaveric and animal models, dry lab, high fidelity, low-fidelity and virtual reality (VR). These can be used to practice generic surgical skills, such as laparoscopic suturing or knot tying on a robotic console. Beyond this there is potential for simulation training courses and full-immersion simulation to address non-technical skills and team aspects within the operating room. To incorporate simulators into training, models must be carefully designed and evaluated according to certain considerations, ensuring that they address parameters such as face, content and construct validity. This review aims to provide an overview of simulation platforms available within endourology, considering ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy and the status of their validation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-588
Number of pages10
JournalMinerva Urologica E Nefrologica
Early online date30 Mar 2017
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017


  • Journal Article


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