Simultaneous Motor and Visual Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Asleep Parietal Lobe Surgery: Dual Strip Technique

Devika Rajashekar, Jose Pedro Lavrador, Prajwal Ghimire*, Hannah Keeble, Lauren Harris, Noemia Pereira, Sabina Patel, Ahmad Beyh, Richard Gullan, Keyoumars Ashkan, Ranjeev Bhangoo, Francesco Vergani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: The role played by the non-dominant parietal lobe in motor cognition, attention and spatial awareness networks has potentiated the use of awake surgery. When this is not feasible, asleep monitoring and mapping techniques should be used to achieve an onco-functional balance. Objective: This study aims to assess the feasibility of a dual-strip method to obtain direct cortical stimulation for continuous real-time cortical monitoring and subcortical mapping of motor and visual pathways simultaneously in parietal lobe tumour surgery. Methods: Single-centre prospective study between 19 May–20 November of patients with intrinsic non-dominant parietal-lobe tumours. Two subdural strips were used to simultaneously map and monitor motor and visual pathways. Results: Fifteen patients were included. With regards to motor function, a large proportion of patients had abnormal interhemispheric resting motor threshold ratio (iRMTr) (71.4%), abnormal Cortical Excitability Score (CES) (85.7%), close distance to the corticospinal tract—Lesion-To-Tract Distance (LTD)—4.2 mm, Cavity-To-Tract Distance (CTD)—7 mm and intraoperative subcortical distance—6.4 mm. Concerning visual function, the LTD and CTD for optic radiations (OR) were 0.5 mm and 3.4 mm, respectively; the mean intensity for positive subcortical stimulation of OR was 12 mA ± 2.3 mA and 5/6 patients with deterioration of VEPs > 50% had persistent hemianopia and transgression of ORs. Twelve patients remained stable, one patient had a de-novo transitory hemiparesis, and two showed improvements in motor symptoms. A higher iRMTr for lower limbs was related with a worse motor outcome (p = 0.013) and a longer CTD to OR was directly related with a better visual outcome (p = 0.041). At 2 weeks after hospital discharge, all patients were ambulatory at home, and all proceeded to have oncological treatment. Conclusion: We propose motor and visual function boundaries for asleep surgery of intrinsic non-dominant parietal tumours. Pre-operative abnormal cortical excitability of the motor cortex, deterioration of the VEP recordings and CTD < 2 mm from the OR were related to poorer outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1478
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • corticospinal tract
  • intra-operative neuro-monitoring
  • optic radiations
  • parietal lobe
  • subdural strip electrodes
  • tractography
  • transcranial magnetic stimulation


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