Simultaneous T1, T2 and T1ρ Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting for Contrast Agent-free Myocardial Tissue Characterization

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Purpose: To develop a simultaneous T 1, T 2, and T cardiac magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) approach to enable comprehensive contrast agent–free myocardial tissue characterization in a single breath-hold scan. Methods: A 2D gradient-echo electrocardiogram-triggered cardiac MRF sequence with low flip angles, varying magnetization preparation, and spiral trajectory was acquired at 1.5 T to encode T 1, T 2, and T 1⍴ simultaneously. The MRF images were reconstructed using low-rank inversion, regularized with a multicontrast patch-based higher-order reconstruction. Parametric maps were generated and matched in the singular value domain to extended phase graph–based dictionaries. The proposed approach was tested in phantoms and 10 healthy subjects and compared against conventional methods in terms of coefficients of determination and best fits for the phantom study, and in terms of Bland-Altman agreement, average values and coefficient of variation of T 1, T 2, and T 1⍴ for the healthy subjects study. Results: The T 1, T 2, and T 1⍴ MRF values showed excellent correlation with conventional spin-echo and clinical mapping methods in phantom studies (r 2 > 0.97). Measured MRF values in myocardial tissue (mean ± SD) were 1133 ± 33 ms, 38.8 ± 3.5 ms, and 52.0 ± 4.0 ms for T 1, T 2 and T1 , respectively, against 1053 ± 47 ms, 50.4 ± 3.9 ms, and 55.9 ± 3.3 ms for T 1 modified Look-Locker inversion imaging, T 2 gradient and spin echo, and T 1⍴ turbo field echo, respectively. Conclusion: A cardiac MRF approach for simultaneous quantification of myocardial T 1, T 2, and T in a single breath-hold MR scan of about 16 seconds has been proposed. The approach has been investigated in phantoms and healthy subjects showing good agreement with reference spin echo measurements and conventional clinical maps.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number4
Early online date19 Nov 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 19 Nov 2021

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