Smoke and mirrors: Western Misperceptions of Russia in Ukraine

Ofer Fridman, Vera Michlin-Shapir

Research output: Other contribution


The consensus among Western politicians and experts is that the Kremlin is gearing up for war, which could be prevented by either deterrence or negotiations. However, recent research shows that policymaking discourse in both Russia and the West is “full of mutual misperceptions, mirror imaging, and attribution of non-existent intentions and capabilities.” One of the main reasons for possible misinterpretation of the Kremlin’s intentions in Ukraine is rooted in differences between the U.S. and Russian strategic cultures
Original languageEnglish
Media of outputOnline Article
PublisherInstitute of Modern Russia
Publication statusPublished - 11 Feb 2022


  • Russia (Federation) -- Foreign relations -- Europe
  • Ukraine crisis
  • United States of America
  • Russian military
  • Russian strategy


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