Social exclusion affects working memory performance in young adolescent girls

Delia Fuhrmann*, Caroline S. Casey, Maarten Speekenbrink, Sarah Jayne Blakemore

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
147 Downloads (Pure)


Adolescence has been proposed to be a sensitive period of social development, during which the social environment has a heightened effect on brain and behaviour. As such, negative social experiences, such as social exclusion, may have particularly detrimental effects on psychological well-being. However, little is known about how social exclusion affects cognitive performance during this time of life. Here, we compared the effects of exclusion between adolescence and adulthood. We recruited 98 females in three age groups: young adolescents (N = 36, aged 10.1–14.0), mid-adolescents (N = 35, aged 14.3–17.9) and adults (N = 27, aged 18.3–38.1). All age groups showed reductions in mood after exclusion, compared to inclusion, in a virtual ball-tossing game. Young adolescents also showed reduced verbal working memory accuracy following exclusion. There was no effect of exclusion on visuo-spatial working memory in any age group. These results suggest young adolescent girls’ verbal working memory accuracy was affected by a short, virtual social exclusion experience. This highlights the importance of the social environment in adolescence and underlines the need to consider age differences in response to exclusion in the design and timing of social exclusion interventions in schools.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100718
JournalDevelopmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Early online date16 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


  • Adolescence
  • Cyberball
  • Mood
  • n-back
  • Sensitive period
  • Visuo-spatial working memory


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