King's College London

Research portal

Socioeconomic disparities in first stroke incidence, quality of care, and survival: a nationwide registry-based cohort study of 44 million adults in England

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Benjamin D Bray, Lizz Paley, Alex Hoffman, Martin James, Patrick Gompertz, Charles D A Wolfe, Harry Hemingway, Anthony G Rudd

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e185-e193
JournalThe Lancet Public Health
Issue number4
Early online date14 Mar 2018
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018


King's Authors


Background: We aimed to estimate socioeconomic disparities in the incidence of hospitalisation for first-ever stroke, quality of care, and post-stroke survival for the adult population of England. Methods In this cohort study, we obtained data collected by a nationwide register on patients aged 18 years or older hospitalised for first-ever acute ischaemic stroke or primary intracerebral haemorrhage in England from July 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016. We classified socioeconomic status at the level of Lower Super Output Areas using the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a neighbourhood measure of deprivation. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate the incidence of hospitalisation for first stroke (negative binomial), quality of care using 12 quality metrics (multilevel logistic), and all-cause 1 year case fatality (Cox proportional hazards). Findings Of the 43·8 million adults in England, 145 324 were admitted to hospital with their first-ever stroke: 126 640 (87%) with ischaemic stroke, 17 233 (12%) with intracerebral haemorrhage, and 1451 (1%) with undetermined stroke type. We observed a socioeconomic gradient in the incidence of hospitalisation for ischaemic stroke (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·0, 95% CI 1·7–2·3 for the most vs least deprived deciles) and intracerebral haemorrhage (1·6, 1·3–1·9). Patients from the lowest socioeconomic groups had first stroke a median of 7 years earlier than those from the highest (p<0·0001), and had a higher prevalence of pre-stroke disability and diabetes. Patients from lower socioeconomic groups were less likely to receive five of 12 care processes but were more likely to receive early supported discharge (adjusted odds ratio 1·14, 95% CI 1·07–1·22). Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 26% higher adjusted risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·26, 95% CI 1·20–1·33, for highest vs lowest deprivation decile), but this gradient was largely attenuated after adjustment for the presence of pre-stroke diabetes, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation (1·11, 1·05–1·17). Interpretation Wide socioeconomic disparities exist in the burden of ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage in England, most notably in stroke hospitalisation risk and case fatality and, to a lesser extent, in the quality of health care. Reducing these disparities requires interventions to improve the quality of acute stroke care and address disparities in cardiovascular risk factors present before stroke. Funding NHS England and the Welsh Government.

Download statistics

No data available

View graph of relations

© 2018 King's College London | Strand | London WC2R 2LS | England | United Kingdom | Tel +44 (0)20 7836 5454