State-Building, Informal Governance and Organised Crime: The Case of Somali Piracy

Anja Shortland, Federico Varese

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)
430 Downloads (Pure)


This article argues that gangs, clans, mafias and insurgencies are, like states, forms of governance. This insight is applied to the case of Somali piracy and the article explores whether protectors of piracy were clearly distinct from pirates; and to what extent protectors coordinated their activities across the Somali coastland. It is shown that clan elders and Islamist militias facilitated piracy by protecting hijacked ships in their anchorages and resolving conflicts within and between pirate groups. Protection arrangements operated across clans, as illustrated by the free movement of hijacked ships along the coastline and the absence of re-hijacking after ransoms were paid. Piracy protection can be thought of as part of a continuum of protection arrangements that goes from mafias to legitimate states. The article concludes by highlighting the implications of the findings for the debate on state-building and organised crime.
Original languageEnglish
Early online date28 Sept 2015
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Sept 2015


  • Organized Crime
  • Piracy
  • Somalia
  • Governance
  • State-building


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