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Stemness Potency of Human Gingival Cells-Application in Anticancer Therapies and Clinical Trials

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Katarzyna Stefańska, Katarzyna Mehr, Maria Wieczorkiewicz, Magdalena Kulus, Ana Angelova Volponi, Jamil A Shibli, Paul Mozdziak, Mariusz T Skowroński, Paweł Antosik, Jędrzej M Jaśkowski, Hanna Piotrowska-Kempisty, Bartosz Kempisty, Marta Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska

Original languageEnglish
JournalCells
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
Published18 Aug 2020

King's Authors

Abstract

Gingivae, as the part of periodontium, are involved in tooth support and possess the ability to heal rapidly, without scar formation. Recently, dental tissues have been identified as a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and several populations of MSCs were isolated from the orofacial region, including gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). GMSCs exhibit robust immunomodulatory and differentiation potential and are easily obtainable, which make them promising candidates for cellular therapies. Apart from being tested for application in immunologic- and inflammatory-related disorders and various tissue regeneration, GMSCs promise to be a valuable tool in cancer treatment, especially in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) with the use of targeted therapy, since GMSCs are able to selectively migrate towards the cancerous cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition to their ability to uptake and release anti-neoplastic drugs, GMSCs may be transduced with apoptosis-inducing factors and used for cancer growth inhibition. Moreover, GMSCs, as most mammalian cells, secrete exosomes, which are a subset of extracellular vesicles with a diameter of 40-160 nm, containing DNA, RNA, lipids, metabolites, and proteins. Such GMSCs-derived exosomes may be useful therapeutic tool in cell-free therapy, as well as their culture medium. GMSCs exhibit molecular and stem-cell properties that make them well suited in preclinical and clinical studies.

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