Stress Activated MAP Kinases and Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 Mediate Nuclear Translocation of Nrf2 via Hsp90α-Pin1-Dynein Motor Transport Machinery

Tetsuro Ishii*, Eiji Warabi, Giovanni E. Mann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Non-lethal low levels of oxidative stress leads to rapid activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which upregulates the expression of genes important for detoxification, glutathione synthesis, and defense against oxidative damage. Stress-activated MAP kinases p38, ERK, and JNK cooperate in the efficient nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 in a cell-type-dependent manner. Activation of p38 induces membrane trafficking of a glutathione sensor neutral sphingomyelinase 2, which generates ceramide upon depletion of cellular glutathione. We previously proposed that caveolin-1 in lipid rafts provides a signaling hub for the phosphorylation of Nrf2 by ceramide-activated PKCζ and casein kinase 2 to stabilize Nrf2 and mask a nuclear export signal. We further propose a mechanism of facilitated Nrf2 nuclear translocation by ERK and JNK. ERK and JNK phosphorylation of Nrf2 induces the association of prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1, which specifically recognizes phosphorylated serine or threonine immediately preceding a proline residue. Pin1-induced structural changes allow importin-α5 to associate with Nrf2. Pin1 is a co-chaperone of Hsp90α and mediates the association of the Nrf2-Pin1-Hsp90α complex with the dynein motor complex, which is involved in transporting the signaling complex to the nucleus along microtubules. In addition to ERK and JNK, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 could phosphorylate Nrf2 and mediate the transport of Nrf2 to the nucleus via the Pin1-Hsp90α system. Some other ERK target proteins, such as pyruvate kinase M2 and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1, are also transported to the nucleus via the Pin1-Hsp90α system to modulate gene expression and energy metabolism. Notably, as malignant tumors often express enhanced Pin1-Hsp90α signaling pathways, this provides a potential therapeutic target for tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number274
JournalAntioxidants
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023

Keywords

  • Cdk5
  • ERK
  • HO-1
  • Hsp90
  • JNK
  • Nrf2
  • Pin1

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