Stress cytokines: pivotal proteins in immune regulatory networks Opinion

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)


Stress proteins have three immunological regulatory functions: within the cell, on the cell membrane as signalling receptors, and in the extracellular environment as stress cytokines. They can activate the immune system by providing danger signals or they may downregulate immune and inflammatory responses. In addition, they can modulate immune responses by acting as chaperones for antigenic peptides while they themselves are processed and presented to T cells as self-peptides. We predict that the exploitation of the downregulatory properties of stress cytokines will have therapeutic applications in the treatment of human chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531 - 534
Number of pages4
JournalCurrent Opinion in Immunology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2004


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