Multidrug efflux pumps are ubiquitous across both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and have major implications in antimicrobial and multidrug resistance. They reside within cellular membranes and have proven difficult to study owing to their hydrophobic character and relationship with their compositionally complex lipid environment. Advances in structural mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have made it possible to study these systems to elucidate critical information on their structure-function relationships. For example, MS techniques can report on protein structural dynamics, stoichiometry, connectivity, solvent accessibility, and binding interactions with ligands, lipids, and other proteins. This information proving powerful when used in conjunction with complementary structural biology methods and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In the present review, aimed at those not experts in MS techniques, we report on the current uses of MS in studying multidrug efflux systems, practical considerations to consider, and the future direction of the field. In the first section, we highlight the importance of studying multidrug efflux proteins, and introduce a range of different MS techniques and explain what information they yield. In the second section, we review recent studies that have utilised MS techniques to study and characterise a range of different multidrug efflux systems.