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Surrogate Warfare: The Transformation of War in the Twenty-first Century

Research output: Book/ReportBookpeer-review

Andreas Krieg, Jean-Marc Rickli

Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationWashington
PublisherGeorgetown University Press
Number of pages264
ISBN (Electronic)9781626166790
ISBN (Print)9781626166776 , 9781626166783
Accepted/In press6 Jul 2018
Published1 Apr 2019

Bibliographical note

Dr Andreas Krieg is an assistant professor in Security Studies at King’s College London currently seconded to the UK Defence Academy where he applies his subject matter expertise to professional military education. Between 2013 and 2017 he was based with King’s in Qatar providing professional military education to officers from Gulf Cooperation Council militaries. In his research Andreas has focused on a variety of different subjects relating to the academic discipline of Security Studies. Over the past ten year Dr Krieg has researched subjects relating to Just War theory, Conflict Studies and non-state violence with a particular focus on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. His most recent books focused on the changing nature of civil-security sector relations amid a growing commercialization of security as well as on the nexus between security and socio-politics in the Middle East after the Arab Spring. In parallel, he has focused on assemblages between state and non-state actors in the developing world more widely. Outside of academia, Dr Krieg’s has been able to draw on his expertise on Middle East security as a political risk consultant for governmental and commercial clients in the MENA region.

King's Authors


This book takes a comprehensive look at the state’s strategy of externalizing the burden of warfare to non-state actors and technological platforms. While the externalization of the burden of warfare is a return to pre-modern war, it is the change in the underlying socio-political relations between the state and its military agent that is a novel phenomenon in surrogate warfare. This book demonstrates that in a post-Westphalian era characterized by non-state violence, globalized conflicts, a prioritization of risk management in a mediatized environment, the state has to explore new ways to remain relevant as the primary public security provider. Thereby, the organization of violence has departed from the employment of the state’s soldier as the primary bearer of the burden of warfare to a mode of war where technological and human surrogates enable the state to manage the risks of post-modern conflict remotely. This book will conceptually explore the inherent risks and opportunities of surrogate warfare as a mode of war for the 21st century. In particular, the book examines this new socio-political phenomenon of externalization in warfare in the context of the intrinsic trade-off between substitution and control.

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