Systems thinking and efficiency under emissions constraints: Addressing rebound effects in digital innovation and policy

Kelly Widdicks*, Federica Lucivero, Gabrielle Samuel, Lucas Somavilla Croxatto, Marcia Tavares Smith, Carolyn Ten Holter, Mike Berners-Lee, Gordon S. Blair, Marina Jirotka, Bran Knowles, Steven Sorrell, Miriam Börjesson Rivera, Caroline Cook, Vlad C. Coroamă, Timothy J. Foxon, Jeffrey Hardy, Lorenz M. Hilty, Simon Hinterholzer, Birgit Penzenstadler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)


Innovations and efficiencies in digital technology have lately been depicted as paramount in the green transition to enable the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, both in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector and the wider economy. This, however, fails to adequately account for rebound effects that can offset emission savings and, in the worst case, increase emissions. In this perspective, we draw on a transdisciplinary workshop with 19 experts from carbon accounting, digital sustainability research, ethics, sociology, public policy, and sustainable business to expose the challenges of addressing rebound effects in digital innovation processes and associated policy. We utilize a responsible innovation approach to uncover potential ways forward for incorporating rebound effects in these domains, concluding that addressing ICT-related rebound effects ultimately requires a shift from an ICT efficiency-centered perspective to a “systems thinking” model, which aims to understand efficiency as one solution among others that requires constraints on emissions for ICT environmental savings to be realized.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100679
Number of pages10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2023


  • digital innovation
  • DSML 1: Concept: Basic principles of a new data science output observed and reported
  • emissions constraints
  • environmental impacts
  • ICT
  • policy
  • rebound effects
  • systems thinking


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