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Talking it better: conversations and normative complexity in healthcare improvement

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Alan Cribb, Vikki A. Entwistle, Polly Mitchell

Original languageEnglish
JournalMedical Humanities
Accepted/In press15 Mar 2021



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    Uploaded date:24 Mar 2021

King's Authors


In this paper we consider the role of conversations in contributing to healthcare quality improvement. More specifically we suggest that conversations can be important in responding to what we call ‘normative complexity’. As well as reflecting on the value of conversations the aim is to introduce the dimension of normative complexity as something that requires theoretical and practical attention alongside the more recognised challenges of complex systems, which we label, for short, as ‘explanatory complexity’. In brief normative complexity relates to the inherent difficulty of deciding what kinds of changes are ‘improvements’ or, more broadly, what is valuable in healthcare. We suggest that explanatory and normative complexity intersect and that anyone interested in healthcare improvement needs to be sensitive to both. After briefly introducing the idea of normative complexity, we consider some contrasting examples of conversations, reflecting on how they do and might contribute to healthcare quality. We discuss both conversations that are deliberately organised and facilitated (‘orchestrated conversations’) and more informally occurring and routine conversations. In the first half of the paper we draw on some examples of orchestrated and routine conversations to open up these issues. In the second half of the paper we bring some more theoretical lenses to bear on both conversations and normative complexity, summarise what we take to be the value of conversations and draw together some of the implications of our discussion. In summary we argue that conversations can play a crucial role in negotiating the normative complexity of healthcare quality improvement because of their capacity to hold together a plurality of perspectives, to contribute and respond to emergence and to help underpin institutional conditions for empathy and imagination.

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