The chemical constitution and biocompatibility of accelerated Portland cement for endodontic use

J Camilleri, F E Montesin, L Di Silvio, T R Pitt Ford

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185 Citations (Scopus)


Aim To evaluate the biocompatibility of mineral trioxide aggregate and accelerated Portland cement and their eluants by assessing cell metabolic function and proliferation. Methodology The chemical constitution of grey and white Portland cement, grey and white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and accelerated Portland cement produced by excluding gypsum from the manufacturing process (Aalborg White) was determined using both energy dispersive analysis with X-ray and X-ray diffraction analysis. Biocompatibility of the materials was assessed using a direct test method where cell proliferation was measured quantitatively using Alamar Blue(TM) dye and an indirect test method where cells were grown on material elutions and cell proliferation was assessed using methyltetrazolium assay as recommended by the International standard guidelines, ISO 10993-Part 5 for in vitro testing. Results The chemical constitution of all the materials tested was similar. Indirect studies of the eluants showed an increase in cell activity after 24 h compared with the control in culture medium (P <0.05). Direct cell contact with the cements resulted in a fall in cell viability for all time points studied (P <0.001). Conclusions Biocompatibility testing of the cement eluants showed the presence of no toxic leachables from the grey or white MTA, and that the addition of bismuth oxide to the accelerated Portland cement did not interfere with biocompatibility. The new accelerated Portland cement showed similar results. Cell growth was poor when seeded in direct contact with the test cements. However, the elution made up of calcium hydroxide produced during the hydration reaction was shown to induce cell proliferation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)834 - 842
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2005

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