The Development of a Multi-Dimensional Coding System to Categorise Negative Online Experiences Including Cyberbullying Behaviors Among Adolescents with Lower Socioeconomic Status

Noel Purdy*, Herbert Scheithauer, Jonathan Harris, Roy Willems, Consuelo Mameli, Annalisa Guarani, Antonella Brighi, Damiano Menin, Catherine Culbert, Jayne Hamilton, Trijntje Völlink, Mark Ballentine, Nora Fiedler, Peter Smith

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


This original paper, based on data from the Erasmus+Blurred Lives Project, presents a new multi-dimensional categorisation model to describe negative online experiences, including forms of cyberbullying, based on a study of internet usage among over N = 2,500 adolescents with lower socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds across five European countries. The paper first sets out the rationale for the development of a new coding system, before describing the current study and nature of the survey data collected. There follows a description of the development of the new system and the series of reliability checks undertaken by the research team (N= 11, from 5 countries) and of the refinements made to the categories and codes. The resulting coding system is presented with consideration of the strengths and limitations, and description of two early pilot studies which have successfully adopted the new system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-155
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Developmental Science
Issue number4
Early online date22 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - 11 Mar 2024


  • Negative online experiences
  • Cyberbullying
  • Multi-dimensional Approach
  • Categorisation
  • Low Socioeconomic Status

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