Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a possible alternative to psychostimulants in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but its mechanisms of action in children and adolescents with ADHD are poorly understood. We conducted the first 15-session, sham-controlled study of anodal tDCS over right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) combined with cognitive training (CT) in 50 children/adolescents with ADHD. We investigated the mechanisms of action on resting and Go/No-Go Task-based QEEG measures in a subgroup of 23 participants with ADHD (n, sham = 10; anodal tDCS = 13). We failed to find a significant sham versus anodal tDCS group differences in QEEG spectral power during rest and Go/No-Go Task performance, a correlation between QEEG and Go/No-Go Task performance, and changes in clinical and cognitive measures. These findings extend the non-significant clinical and cognitive effects in our sample of 50 children/adolescents with ADHD. Given that the subgroup of 23 participants would have been underpowered, the interpretation of our findings is limited and should be used as a foundation for future investigations. Larger, adequately powered randomized controlled trials should explore different protocols titrated to the individual and using comprehensive measures to assess cognitive, clinical, and neural effects of tDCS and its underlying mechanisms of action in ADHD.