The effects of callous-unemotional traits and aggression subtypes on amygdala activity in response to negative faces

Pascal M. Aggensteiner*, Nathalie E. Holz, Boris W. Böttinger, Sarah Baumeister, Sarah Hohmann, Julia E. Werhahn, Jilly Naaijen, Shahrzad Ilbegi, Jeffrey C. Glennon, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Andrea Dietrich, Renee Kleine Deters, Melanie C. Saam, Ulrike M.E. Schulze, David J. Lythgoe, Arjun Sethi, Michael C. Craig, Mathilde Mastroianni, Ilyas Sagar-Ouriaghli, Paramala J. SantoshMireia Rosa, Nuria Bargallo, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Celso Arango, Maria J. Penzol, Jorge Vidal, Barbara Franke, Marcel P. Zwiers, Jan K. Buitelaar, Susanne Walitza, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BackgroundBrain imaging studies have shown altered amygdala activity during emotion processing in children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) compared to typically developing children and adolescents (TD). Here we aimed to assess whether aggression-related subtypes (reactive and proactive aggression) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits predicted variation in amygdala activity and skin conductance (SC) response during emotion processing.MethodsWe included 177 participants (n = 108 cases with disruptive behaviour and/or ODD/CD and n = 69 TD), aged 8-18 years, across nine sites in Europe, as part of the EU Aggressotype and MATRICS projects. All participants performed an emotional face-matching functional magnetic resonance imaging task.ResultsDifferences between cases and TD in affective processing, as well as specificity of activation patterns for aggression subtypes and CU traits, were assessed. Simultaneous SC recordings were acquired in a subsample (n = 63). Cases compared to TDs showed higher amygdala activity in response to negative faces (fearful and angry) v. shapes. Subtyping cases according to aggression-related subtypes did not significantly influence on amygdala activity; while stratification based on CU traits was more sensitive and revealed decreased amygdala activity in the high CU group. SC responses were significantly lower in cases and negatively correlated with CU traits, reactive and proactive aggression.ConclusionsOur results showed differences in amygdala activity and SC responses to emotional faces between cases with ODD/CD and TD, while CU traits moderate both central (amygdala) and peripheral (SC) responses. Our insights regarding subtypes and trait-specific aggression could be used for improved diagnostics and personalized treatment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPsychological Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2020

Keywords

  • Aggression
  • conduct disorder
  • CU traits
  • neuroimaging
  • oppositional defiant disorder
  • subtypes

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