Objective: Evidence about the etiology of the predictive associations between a diagnosis of ADHD and cognitive performance over time is scarce. Here, we examine these predictive and etiological patterns using a cross-lagged model design in a sample of 404 participants (74% males) from ADHD and control sibling pairs aged 6 to 17 years at baseline and 12 to 24 years at follow-up. Methods: Data included IQ, short-term and working memory measures, and response speed and variability from a four-choice reaction-time task. Results: ADHD and IQ predicted each other over time. ADHD at baseline predicted lower working memory performance at follow-up. Stable etiological influences emerged in the association between ADHD and cognitive variables across time. Conclusion: Whether early interventions can reduce negative interference with learning at school requires further study.
- cognitive impairments
- etiological factors