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The Generalised Antisemitism (GeAs) scale: a questionnaire instrument for measuring antisemitism as expressed in relation both to Jews and to Israel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Daniel Allington, David Hirsh, Louise Katz

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-48
JournalJournal of Contemporary Antisemitism
Issue number1
Accepted/In press21 Sep 2021
Published11 Aug 2022


King's Authors


This article explains the development and face validity of the Generalised Antisemitism (GeAs) scale, which provides an up-to-date measure of antisemitism consistent with the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance Working Definition of Antisemitism (generally known as the IHRA Definition). The GeAs scale is comprised of two 6-item subscales, each containing a balance of reverse-coded items: the Judeophobic Antisemitism (JpAs) subscale, which tests for endorsement of ‘classic’ prejudicial attitudes towards Jews, and the Antizionist Antisemitism (AzAs) subscale, which tests for endorsement of related attitudes expressed in relation to Israel and its supporters. Both subscales reflect the current state of historical and social scholarship on antisemitism. Findings of a validation study presented elsewhere are summarised, and the scale’s use in future scholarly and stakeholder research is recommended.

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