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The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

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The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. / Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Asbury, Kathryn; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 111, No. 42, 21.10.2014, p. 15273-15278.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Krapohl, E, Rimfeld, K, Shakeshaft, NG, Trzaskowski, M, McMillan, A, Pingault, J-B, Asbury, K, Harlaar, N, Kovas, Y, Dale, PS & Plomin, R 2014, 'The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 111, no. 42, pp. 15273-15278. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408777111

APA

Krapohl, E., Rimfeld, K., Shakeshaft, N. G., Trzaskowski, M., McMillan, A., Pingault, J-B., Asbury, K., Harlaar, N., Kovas, Y., Dale, P. S., & Plomin, R. (2014). The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(42), 15273-15278. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408777111

Vancouver

Krapohl E, Rimfeld K, Shakeshaft NG, Trzaskowski M, McMillan A, Pingault J-B et al. The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014 Oct 21;111(42):15273-15278. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1408777111

Author

Krapohl, Eva ; Rimfeld, Kaili ; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G ; Trzaskowski, Maciej ; McMillan, Andrew ; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste ; Asbury, Kathryn ; Harlaar, Nicole ; Kovas, Yulia ; Dale, Philip S ; Plomin, Robert. / The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014 ; Vol. 111, No. 42. pp. 15273-15278.

Bibtex Download

@article{2b5ed1397e9447fe9adb7c7051e0c023,
title = "The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence",
abstract = "Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.",
keywords = "Academic achievement, Twin studies, Behavioral genetics, General cognitive ability, Personalized learning",
author = "Eva Krapohl and Kaili Rimfeld and Shakeshaft, {Nicholas G} and Maciej Trzaskowski and Andrew McMillan and Jean-Baptiste Pingault and Kathryn Asbury and Nicole Harlaar and Yulia Kovas and Dale, {Philip S} and Robert Plomin",
year = "2014",
month = oct,
day = "21",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1408777111",
language = "English",
volume = "111",
pages = "15273--15278",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
publisher = "National Acad Sciences",
number = "42",

}

RIS (suitable for import to EndNote) Download

TY - JOUR

T1 - The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence

AU - Krapohl, Eva

AU - Rimfeld, Kaili

AU - Shakeshaft, Nicholas G

AU - Trzaskowski, Maciej

AU - McMillan, Andrew

AU - Pingault, Jean-Baptiste

AU - Asbury, Kathryn

AU - Harlaar, Nicole

AU - Kovas, Yulia

AU - Dale, Philip S

AU - Plomin, Robert

PY - 2014/10/21

Y1 - 2014/10/21

N2 - Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

AB - Because educational achievement at the end of compulsory schooling represents a major tipping point in life, understanding its causes and correlates is important for individual children, their families, and society. Here we identify the general ingredients of educational achievement using a multivariate design that goes beyond intelligence to consider a wide range of predictors, such as self-efficacy, personality, and behavior problems, to assess their independent and joint contributions to educational achievement. We use a genetically sensitive design to address the question of why educational achievement is so highly heritable. We focus on the results of a United Kingdom-wide examination, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), which is administered at the end of compulsory education at age 16. GCSE scores were obtained for 13,306 twins at age 16, whom we also assessed contemporaneously on 83 scales that were condensed to nine broad psychological domains, including intelligence, self-efficacy, personality, well-being, and behavior problems. The mean of GCSE core subjects (English, mathematics, science) is more heritable (62%) than the nine predictor domains (35-58%). Each of the domains correlates significantly with GCSE results, and these correlations are largely mediated genetically. The main finding is that, although intelligence accounts for more of the heritability of GCSE than any other single domain, the other domains collectively account for about as much GCSE heritability as intelligence. Together with intelligence, these domains account for 75% of the heritability of GCSE. We conclude that the high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits, not just intelligence.

KW - Academic achievement

KW - Twin studies

KW - Behavioral genetics

KW - General cognitive ability

KW - Personalized learning

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1408777111

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1408777111

M3 - Article

C2 - 25288728

VL - 111

SP - 15273

EP - 15278

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 42

ER -

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