The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most important biological mediators of the bidirectional communication between body and mind. Indeed, psychiatric disturbances are profoundly influenced by the activity of this neuroendocrine system and vice-versa. With the present chapter, we specifically aim to provide insights into the relationship between the HPA axis and bipolar disorder (BD). After a general overview on what the HPA axis is, we will explore the evidence up to date on its potential connection with BD. We will finally discuss the clinical relevance of such relationship, mainly focusing on therapeutic opportunities.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNeurobiology of Bipolar Disorder
Subtitle of host publicationRoad to Novel Therapeutics
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780128191828
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • Bipolar disorder (BD)
  • Glucocorticoid receptor (GR)
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis
  • Inflammation
  • Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)


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