The aim of the study was to measure serum levels of molecular markers of inflammation in patients undergoing non-surgical root canal retreatment (Re-RCT) and periapical surgery (PS) for the treatment of apical periodontitis and to establish if such levels are influenced by the size of apical radiolucencies at baseline and by the treatment outcome.


A total of 115 participants were recruited (n = 50 Controls, n = 35 Re-RCT, n = 30 PS). Preoperative periapical radiographs and cone beam CT (CBCT) scans of teeth were taken. Blood was collected from treatment groups at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month post-treatment and from controls at baseline and 12 months. Serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, Pentraxin 3, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, hs-CRP, FGF-23, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, C3 and ADMA were analysed using multiplex immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Different time points within the same group were compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and differences between groups were analysed using the Mann–Whitney test. Non-linear association between different factors was assessed using Spearman's correlation.


Preoperative serum levels of FGF-23, IL-1β, hs-CRP and ADMA were significantly higher in the diseased groups compared with controls (p < .001; p = .008; p < .001; p = .013, respectively). The preoperative size of the radiolucency was associated with increased levels of FGF-23, IL-1β and IL-6. At 3-months following treatment, IL-1β, IL-8, hs-CRP, C3, MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels increased compared with baseline in treatment groups. IL-1β and IL-8 further increased at 6 months, whereas FGF-23, hs-CRP, C3, MMP2 and MMP-9 decreased. One-year post-treatment, FGF-23, pentraxin-3 and ADMA were significantly reduced below baseline levels. At the 1-year review, CBCT revealed that 25.9% of treated cases completely healed, while 63% were healing, and 11.1% failed. Treatment outcome was found to be influenced by preoperative levels of ADMA and IL-8 levels at 6 months.


Both symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis (AP) can contribute to increased levels of molecular markers of inflammation. A further transient inflammatory markers rise after root canal retreatment and apical surgery were demonstrated. Successful endodontic treatment and periapical surgery result in a long-term reduction in inflammatory marker levels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)923-937
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Endodontic Journal
Issue number9
Early online date16 Jun 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


Dive into the research topics of 'The Impact of Apical Periodontitis, Non‐surgical Root Canal Retreatment and Periapical Surgery on Serum Inflammatory Biomarkers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this