The Long-Term Impact of Levodopa/Carbidopa Intestinal Gel on ‘Off’-time in Patients with Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review

Angelo Antonini*, Per Odin, Rajesh Pahwa, Jason Aldred, Ali Alobaidi, Yash J. Jalundhwala, Pavnit Kukreja, Lars Bergmann, Sushmitha Inguva, Yanjun Bao, K. Ray Chaudhuri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG; carbidopa/levodopa enteral suspension) has been widely used and studied for the treatment of motor fluctuations in levodopa-responsive patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) when other treatments have not given satisfactory results. Reduction in ‘off’-time is a common primary endpoint in studies of LCIG, and it is important to assess the durability of this response. This systematic literature review was conducted to qualitatively summarise the data on the long-term effects of LCIG therapy on ‘off’-time. Methods: Studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE and Ovid on 30 September 2019. Studies were included if they reported on patients with PD, had a sample size of ≥ 10, LCIG was an active intervention and ‘off’-time was reported for ≥ 12 months after initiation of LCIG treatment. Randomised clinical trials, retrospective and prospective observational studies, and other interventional studies were included for selection. Data were collected on: ‘off’-time (at pre-specified time periods and the end of follow-up), study characteristics, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II, III and IV total scores, dyskinesia duration, quality of life scores, non-motor symptoms and safety outcomes. Results: Twenty-seven studies were included in this review. The improvement in ‘off’-time observed shortly after initiating LCIG was maintained and was statistically significant at the end of follow-up in 24 of 27 studies. ‘Off’-time was reduced from baseline to end of follow-up by 38–84% and was accompanied by a clinically meaningful improvement in quality of life. Stratified analysis of ‘off’-time demonstrated mean relative reductions of 47–82% at 3–6 months and up to 83% reduction at 3–5 years of follow-up. Most studies reported significant improvements in activities of daily living and motor complications. Most frequent adverse events were related to the procedure or the device. Conclusion: In one of the largest qualitative syntheses of published LCIG studies, LCIG treatment was observed to provide a durable effect in reducing ‘off’-time. Infographic: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] [MediaObject not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2854-2890
Number of pages37
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Advanced Parkinson’s disease
  • LCIG
  • Long-term
  • ‘Off’-time


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