The Modern Slavery Core Outcome Set: A survivor-driven consensus on priority outcomes for recovery, wellbeing, and reintegration

Sohail Jannesari*, Bee Damara, Rachel Witkin, Cornelius Katona, Queenie Sit, Minh Dang, Jeanet Joseph, Emma Howarth, Olivia Triantafillou, Claire Powell, Sabah Rafique, Anitta Sritharan, Nicola Wright, Sian Oram, Sharli Paphitis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Abstract: Background: There is no consensus on the outcomes needed for the recovery and reintegration of survivors of modern slavery and human trafficking. We developed the Modern Slavery Core Outcome Set (MSCOS) to address this gap. Methods: We conducted three English-language reviews on the intervention outcomes sought or experienced by adult
survivors: a qualitative systematic review (4 databases, 18 eligible papers, thematic analysis), a rapid review of quantitative intervention studies (4 databases, 8 eligible papers, content analysis) and a grey literature review (2 databases, 21 websites, a call for evidence, 13 eligible papers, content analysis). We further extracted outcomes from 36 pre-existing
interview transcripts with survivors, and 7 interviews with survivors from underrepresented groups. We narrowed down outcomes via a consensus process involving: a three-stage EDelphi survey (191 respondents); and a final consensus workshop (46 participants). Results:
We generated 398 outcomes from our three reviews, and 843 outcomes from interviews. By removing conceptual and literal duplicates, we reduced this to a longlist of 72 outcomes spanning 10 different domains. The E-Delphi produced a 14-outcome shortlist for the consensus workshop, where 7 final outcomes were chosen. Final outcomes were: ‘long-term
consistent support’, ‘secure and suitable housing’, ‘safety from any trafficker or other
abuser’, ‘access to medical treatment’, ‘finding purpose in life and self-actualisation', ‘access to education’, and ‘compassionate, trauma-informed services’. Conclusion: The MSCOS provides outcomes that are accepted by a wide range of stakeholders and that should be
measured in intervention evaluation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalTrauma, Violence, and Abuse
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2023

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