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The Music Annotation Pattern

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paperpeer-review

Jacopo de Berardinis, Albert Merono Penuela, Andrea Poltronieri, Valentina Presutti

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Semantic Web – ISWC 2022 21st International Semantic Web Conference
Subtitle of host publication13th Workshop on Ontology Design and Patterns (WOP2022)

King's Authors


The annotation of music content is a complex process to represent due to its inherent multifaceted, subjectivity, and interdisciplinary nature. Numerous systems and conventions for annotating music have been developed as independent standards over the past decades. Little has been done to make them interoperable, which jeopardises cross-corpora studies as it requires users to familiarise with a multitude of conventions. Most of these systems lack the semantic expressiveness needed to represent the complexity of the musical language and cannot model multi-modal annotations originating from audio and symbolic sources. In this article, we introduce the Music Annotation Pattern, an Ontology Design Pattern (ODP) to homogenise different annotation systems and to represent several types of musical objects (e.g. chords, patterns, structures). This ODP preserves the semantics of the object’s
content at different levels and temporal granularity. Moreover, our ODP accounts for multi-modality upfront, to describe annotations derived from different sources, and it is the first to enable the integration of music datasets at a large scale.

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