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The novel chemokine receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 75, is expressed by islets and is coupled to stimulation of insulin secretion and improved glucose homeostasis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Article numberN/A
Pages (from-to)2467-2476
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetologia
Volume56
Issue number11
DOIs
PublishedNov 2013

King's Authors

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis
Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) acts at C-C chemokine receptors (CCRs) to promote immune cell recruitment to sites of inflammation, but is also an agonist at G-protein-coupled receptor 75 (GPR75), which has very limited homology with CCRs. GPR75 is coupled to Gq to elevate intracellular calcium, so we investigated whether islets express this receptor and whether its activation by CCL5 increases beta cell calcium levels and insulin secretion.
Methods
Islet CCL5 receptor mRNA expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and GPR75 was detected in islets by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In some experiments GPR75 was downregulated by transient transfection with small interfering RNA. Real-time changes in intracellular calcium were determined by single-cell microfluorimetry. Dynamic insulin secretion from perifused islets was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Glucose homeostasis in lean and obese mice was determined by measuring glucose and insulin tolerance, and insulin secretion in vivo.
Results
Mouse and human islets express GPR75 and its ligand CCL5. Exogenous CCL5 reversibly increased intracellular calcium in beta cells via GPR75, this phenomenon being dependent on phospholipase C activation and calcium influx. CCL5 also stimulated insulin secretion from mouse and human islets in vitro, and improved glucose tolerance in lean mice and in a mouse model of hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance (ob/ob). The improvement in glucose tolerance was associated with enhanced insulin secretion in vivo, without changes in insulin sensitivity.
Conclusions/interpretation
Although CCL5 is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes through activation of CCRs, it has beneficial effects on beta cells through GPR75 activation.

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