The organisational climate of NHS Early Intervention Services (EIS) for psychosis: a qualitative analysis

Francis Lammas, Alexandria Phillips, Sue Dopson, Eileen Joyce, Emese Csipke*, Til Wykes

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
46 Downloads (Pure)


Background: Cognitive remediation (CR) therapy for psychosis significantly improves recovery but is yet to be widely implemented in NHS services. It is likely to be of value at the earliest stages of psychosis development – at the first episode. Organisational climate is one factor likely to affect implementation into Early Intervention Services (EIS), which serve those experiencing first episode psychosis. We aimed to understand the organisational climate within UK NHS Early Intervention for Psychosis (EIP) services and the barriers and facilitators for the introduction of CR. Methods: We conducted semi structured interviews with 42 EIS members of four teams in four NHS Trusts. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results: There were differences between teams, including leadership style, involvement in decision making and willingness to adopt CR. Resource shortages were considered the main barrier for implementation across all teams. The evidence base behind CR and the recognition of there being a clinical need was seen as the main facilitator. Teams with more democratic leadership, and knowledge of both the evidence base and need for CR, may feel better able to successfully incorporate it into their service. Conclusion: Despite enthusiasm for novel treatments, EIS teams are limited by their resources. An understanding of the local organisational variables can help teams establish a culture that values innovation. Clear communication of the evidence base for CR is key to help enable staff to implement novel treatments successfully despite these limited resources and time pressures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number509
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2022


  • Clinical teams
  • Cognitive remediation
  • Early intervention
  • Organisational climate
  • Psychosis
  • Psychotherapy


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